De’VIA Motifs

Motifs are culturally relevant symbols (like hands and eyes) used by Deaf artists to communicate overall themes in their artwork. Themes are the major concepts (meaning/purpose) the artist is communicating (like audism or Deafhood).[1] In De’VIA artworks, we group the themes of artworks as fitting the category of resistance or affirmation (audism is resistance/Deafhood is affirmation).[2]

Most examples are found in the De’VIA [Feb. 2015 or Feb. 2016] Challenge listings at https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/devia-motifs/28-day-chall-motifs-2015/

 

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ASL Signs

Meaning: ASL signs in artworks represent our language, a primary value of Deaf Americans. Use of signs communicate pride in our language and the rich knowledge we have via ASL.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Rosie the Artivist by David Call and Untitled by Shawn Elfrink (also see Hinda Kasher’s TEACHER + SIGN LANGUAGE= Precious [3]and Chuck Baird’s Art No. 2[4])

Explanation: motif explained by Emily Blachly

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AGB: Alexander Graham Bell

Meaning: AGB refers to Alexander Graham Bell, the “father of audism and oralism” in the U.S. He also represents eugenic efforts to reduce the Deaf population, the mask of benevolence[5], and other ideas associated with AGB (stealing the telephone patent, fear of a ‘deaf race,’ removing support for sign language, Deaf schools and Deaf teachers…etc). (see related motif Karl White)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: AGBAD Propaganda by Ellen Mansfield and Oral Mind Control by David Call (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 13)

Explanation: motif explained by Susan Dupor

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Bells

Meaning: Bells represent sound and the testing of hearing ability. Bells can be used to distract Hearing people and get their attention.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: see Your Joy, My Pain by David Call and Cowbell Wristbands by Ellen Mansfield. Also see Liberation by Warren Miller[6]

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Baby or Child

Meaning: Babies symbolize the future and growth of the Deaf community, Deafhood journeys, life, nurturing/protection/comfort.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Birth of a Deaf Soul by David Call and YOU- LUCKY, DEAF! by Ellen Mansfield (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 20)

Explanation: motif explained by Peggy Gelarde

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Blue Tape

Meaning: Blue tape refers generally to audism and oppression. Something crossed out (eyes) and tied down (hands symbolizing oppression/prohibiting of ASL).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Untitled by Yusuf Yahya and 12 in 1989 by Nancy Rourke (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 15)

Explanation: motif explained by Nancy Rourke

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Body Hole

Meaning: The image of a body hole communicates a lack of identity as a Deaf person and a lack of feeling like a complete person. It communicates that the dominant culture has not allowed Deaf people to become fully realized human beings with access to ASL, Deaf culture and a DEAF WORLD view.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Oppression by Nancy Rourke and Deaf Disempowerment by Nancy Rourke

Explanation: motif explained by Nancy Rourke

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*Butterfly

Meaning: Butterfly refers to the Deafhood, journey. It means discovering one’s Deaf identity which is also a spiritual evolution. It means self-acceptance and that being Deaf is natural.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 10

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Candle

Meaning: Candles are used to represent paying a tribute: to honor, remember, respect Deaf people, our ancestors, and our history. Candles represent light, hope, seeing/vision (a strong Deaf cultural value), and understanding.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Joyful Dance by Takiyah Harris and A Candlelight in Honor…by Roberta Merrill (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 12)

Explanation: motif explained by Mindy Moore

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Chain

Meaning: Audism, colonializaton, and repression. Chained hands communicate prohibiting ASL.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Oral Hardship by Ellen Mansfield and Deaf DNA Eugenics by Hinda Kasher (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 1)

Explanation: motif explained by Bonnie Arnold

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Chair

Meaning: Chairs have a number of meanings in De’VIA art: isolation, passivity, emptiness, but also welcoming, collectivism.   Chairs can represent restrictive activity, places where Deaf children are forced into as well as a part of Deaf space (especially when used with round tables).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Three White Chairs by Betty G. Miller[7] and The Hearing Test Room by Nancy Rourke. (also see Mary Rappazzo’s A Party of One [8])

Explanation: motif explained by Christine Parrotte

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Checkerboard

Meaning: Checkerboards symbolize repetition, patterns, cloning which communicates a nightmarish/crazy/maze-like feeling.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Which Identity? by Nancy Rourke and Hearing People, later called chatterbox by Diane A Squires (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 27)

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Dandelion

Meaning: Dandelions symbolize nature, and natural-growing things that are sometimes viewed by the majority/dominant culture as undesirable. Dandelions refer to growth and future in the face of this oppression. [Based on an ASL poem by Clayton Valli] (see also the related motif of flower)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as liberation works

Examples: Les signes volent au gré du vent by Arnaud Balard and DEAF-GAIN: self-portrait by Ellen Mansfield, (see also De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge Day 8 and Nancy Rourke’s Dandelions[9])

Explanation: motif explained by Michelle Mansfield-Hom

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Deaf Union Flag

Meaning: The Deaf Union Flag (created by Arnaud Balard) represents Deaf unity—the unity of signing peoples as well as the globalization of  the Deaf and Deaf-Blind experience.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Solidarity by Nancy Rourke and V ictory by Patti Durr (see also 2ND Wave of De’VIA Mural and Coming Home Mural by various artists.[10])

Explanation: motif explained by Tiffany Hoglind

 

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DNA

Meaning: DNA refers to the natural genes of Deaf people and is usually represented by a type of twisting “ladder” of a molecule. [NOTE: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid which is genetic information carried by cells].

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Deaf History: Deaf Vineyarders by Nancy Rourke.

Explanation: motif explained by Christine Parrotte

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Doctor

Meaning: Doctors and audiologists represent the medical view of being Deaf as ‘needing to be fixed.’ Doctors are authority figures in the dominant culture who have the power to influence the lives of Deaf people and who financially benefit from working to ‘cure’ Deaf people.

Category: : in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Mr. Joker Doctor loves the cochlear implants by Takiyah Harris and Living Inside by Ellen Mansfield. (Also see David Call’s PLAGUE DOCTOR [11] )

Explanation: motif explained by Hinda Kasher

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Door

Meaning: Doors symbolize a seeking and a welcoming. They are the beginnings of a Deafhood journey and entryways into the Deaf world.   At times, they can represent a lack of opportunity or access to the dominant culture.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: HeartBroken n Breakthrough GateWay to the Deaf Community by Ellen Mansfield and The Annex by Patti Durr. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 26).

Explanation: motif explained by Susan Dupor

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Ears

Meaning: Ears represent the dominant Hearing culture, hearing/sound and auditory training methods. Hearing people tend to focus on the ears of Deaf people as something broken and in need of fixing. (related motifs: hearing aids, mouths)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Greedy Ear by Laurie Rose Monahan and Classroom: Access Denied by Hinda Kasher (also see Chuck Baird’s “Mechanical Ear”[12] and Takiyah Harris’ “The Ear Butterfly feels peaceful after the coffee with eye pushed other coffee with the sound devices away[13]

Explanation: motif explained by Peggy Gelarde

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Eyes

Meaning: Eyes are a strong motif in many De’VIA works as they also represent a culturalvalue of Deaf people. Eyes represent Deaf people as visual beings and Deaf people as living in a visual world (sometimes also symbolized by Eyeth).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Visualizing by Nancy Rourke and The Birds of Eyeth by David Call (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 16)

Explanation: motif explained by Christine Parrotte

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Feather

Meaning: Feathers represent Deaf people’s experiences with speech therapy and thereby shows parroting, disempowerment and audism.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Speech Therapy by Tormentor by Ellen Mansfield and Can You Hear the Feather? By Kyle Hoffer (also see De’VIA Challenge, Day 3)

Explanation: motif explained by Scotty Zwicker

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Flower

Meaning: Flowers refer to nature, growing/blossoming, new life, Deafhood, sweet fragrance/beauty, hope, and remembrance. (See also the related motif of Dandelion)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Handflowers by Nancy Rourke and EyeSunFlowers by Brenda Pond. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 8)

Explanation: motif explained by Bonnie Arnold

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Hammer/Sledgehammer

Meaning: This motif is used to show resisting or smashing oppression of Deaf people. It can also represent the ‘fixing’ of Deaf people.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: The Hear Doctor’s Cure-All Tool Box by Bethaney Hall.

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Hands/Hands Holding/Broken or Chopped Hands

Hands Meaning: Hands are a strong motif in many De’VIA works as they also represent a cultural value of Deaf people. In general, hands are valued/ cherished and to signing/ASL.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works (but see below)

Examples: Hands Unity by Takiyah Harris and Evolution of ASL by Betty G. Miller[14]. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 4)

Explanation: Hands motif explained by Hinda Kasher

*-Hands Holding Meaning: Hands holding symbolize solidarity and partnership.  It represents security, comfort, and support.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 22 and Two De’VIA Mothers by David Call [15]

Broken Hands Meaning:  Broken hands tend to show that ASL banned or prohibited. Language and communication is denied to Deaf people. It also can refer to breaking of rules.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Ameslan Prohibited by Betty G. Miller [16]and Milan 1880 on the Table by Nancy Rourke. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 10 and Strange Fruit by Warren Miller[17])

Explanation: Broken Hands motif explained by Michelle Mansfield-Hom

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*Handstand

Meaning: We take a stand, stand-up for our rights, get involved in advocating for our community. We proudly stand in solidarity.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 6

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*Hook/Fish Hook

Meaning: Hooks refer to being painfully ‘caught’ in an oppressed/colonialized situation. It communicates being stuck and unable to escape from oralism/audism and other ways Deaf people experience brute abuse.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 17

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Interpreter

Meaning: Interpreters often represent access to communication between Deaf and Hearing people. As a motif, it can also refer to when interpreters act as barriers and who are untrustworthy and controlling.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Interpreter by Betty G. Miller[18] and Invisible Interpreter by Nancy Rourke

Explanation: motif explained by Hinda Kasher

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Ladder

Meaning: Ladders can symbolize ways into the Deaf community, climbing upward as progress/higher levels of consciousness. With ladders, climbing downward carries a negative implication, back to old ways. [Based on the ASL poem, Black Hole: Colors ASL by Debbie Rennie].

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Black Hole: Color ASL by Ellen Mansfield and No Job Promotion for Deaf by Takiyah Harris. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 14).

Explanation: motif explained by Christine Parrotte

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Light Bulb

Meaning: Light bulbs represent light, hope, seeing/vision (a strong Deaf cultural value), and understanding. (other related motifs: light and lamps).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Hungry Eyes by Ellen Mansfield and Veditz’s Light Bulbs by David Call. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 2)

Explanation: motif explained by Tiffany Hoglind

https://youtu.be/yyKA8T3RTjM

 

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Lock

Meaning:  Locks are symbols that refer to being/feeling trapped or limited.  They communicate something hidden away or unknown.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Inner Deaf Soul Locked Up by David Call and Innocent Deaf Prisoner by Ellen Mansfield  (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 7)

Explanation: motif explained by Christine Parrotte

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Mask

Meaning: Masks symbolize hypocrites, inauthenticity, and being two-faced. It can refer to secrets that are hidden and also refers to the mask of benevolence (see footnote 3).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: School Dayz by Patti Durr and Deaf Shame by Darlene Buzzelli Weir. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 18).

Explanation: motif explained by Emily Blachly

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Mirror

Meaning: Mirrors represent views of one’s own reality vs society’s reality.  They can represent the concepts of being two faced or the idea of having a two way mirror.  Mirrors also reflect the real people hiding behind the mask of benevolence (see footnote 3).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Untitled by Laurie Rose Monahan and Looking Glass Self Howl by Patti Durr. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 5

Explanation: motif explained by Takiyah Harris

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Mountain

Meaning: Mountains symbolize the strength and survival of the Deaf community and Deaf culture standing strong against the “waves of oralism.” (based on a quote from Paddy Ladd).[19]

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Coming Home Mural by various artists and Veditz Building the Mountain by Patti Durr.

Explanation: motif explained by Michelle Mansfield-Hom

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Mouth

Meaning: Mouths represent the dominant Hearing culture/spoken language, speech therapy, and oralism (including oral/aural methods). (related motifs, ears, puppets)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: No Say It With Your Hands by Betty G. Miller[20] and Untitled by Brenda Pond. Also see Chuck Baird’s Why Me?[21]

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Nails/ Screws

Meaning: Nails and screws often represent the destruction of the Deaf community, Deaf identity, and natural language. Nails and screws communicate pain and may be used as a wake-up call.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: The Crucifixion of Sign Language by David Call and Untitled by Patti Durr. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 21)

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Nature

Meaning: Nature is often used to show that being Deaf is a natural phenomena with historical roots and need for future growth. It can also be used to show how Hearing culture views Deaf people as “weeds” or parts of nature that should be controlled or eliminated. (see also the related motif of Dandelions).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Tree Affirmative by Takiyah Harris and Beckoning by Susan Dupor[22].

Explanation: motif explained by Michelle Manfield-Hom

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Nest

Meaning: A nest is a  nurturing Deaf space. It represents a community protecting, sheltering and fostering a future generation.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Our Precious Nest by Nancy Rourke and Martha’s Vineyard, Mother Nest by David Call.

Explanation: motif explained by Mary Cregan

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*Octopus

Meaning: An Octopus symbolizes something very big and powerful which seizes and holds control over Deaf communities, Deaf organizations/interests, and Deaf bodies.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 25

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*Profit $

Meaning: The motif of profit is often represented by the dollar sign. It refers to systems that make money off of Deaf bodies or appropriation of Deaf capital (ie Hearing actors taking on the roles of Deaf people in film and on stage).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 9

Explanation:  motif explained by Tullos Horn

https://youtu.be/-X84pEo2hM8

 

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Puppet

Meaning: Puppets symbolize Deaf individuals who have been colonized and are submissive/passive. The use of puppets indicate a Deaf person unable to stand for herself/himself and tend to copy the dominant culture behaviors and values. (related images include puppet mouths/ventriloquism).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Project Manipulation by Tony Fowler[23] and Dance Baby Dance…Run Baby Run by Patti Durr. (see also De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 23)

Explanation: motif explained by Takako Kerns

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*Puzzle pieces/Jigsaw Puzzles

Meaning: Puzzle pieces as motifs often refer to something missing or something that is a mystery. It can symbolize disempowerment, but also sometimes symbolizes not fitting into the dominant culture expectations.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 11

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Round table

Meaning: Round tables symbolize Deaf space where Deaf people can sit and see each other. They also show the Deaf values of social gatherings and collectivism.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Isolation from the deaf children by Takiyah Harris and Picasso Project

by 2015 De’VIA Curriculum teachers/artists. (also see Uzi Buzgalo’s Passover passed on with hands[24] and De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 28

Explanation: motif explained by Nancy Rourke

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Ruler

Meaning: Rulers symbolize denial of ASL as they were often used to punish Deaf children from signing.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as resistance works

Examples: Fist for Life by Jon Savage [25] and I Will Never Forget by Ellen Mansfield.[26]

Explanation: motif explained by Susan Dupor

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si5s/ASL sign writing

Meaning: Si5s and ASL sign writing are ways to represent ASL in written form.  This motif communicates pride in ASL and a wealth of knowledge that ASL has. (see related motif of ASL signs)

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: 300 Hands vs Empire of Oralism by Kyle Hoffer and Quadrilingualism by Hinda Kasher. See other works by Hinda Kasher (ASL is Children’s Human Right)[27] and Adrean Clark (Stop Talking About Us Without Us!)[28]

Explanation: Si5s motif explained by Hinda Kasher

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Solidarity Fist

Meaning: The image of a raised or clenched fist is a symbol of solidarity or collective action. Artivists/Activists that stand together communicate resistance and strength.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: De’ARTIvists by Patti Durr and Solidarity by Nancy Rourke. (also see De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 24)

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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Stars

Meaning: Stars represent visual beauty and light amid darkness. Stars also represent collectivism (see nature and other related motifs).

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Star Maker by David Call and ASL Shadow Storyteller v 2. by Ellen Mansfield.

Explanation: motif explained by Michelle Mansfield-Hom

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Stream

Meaning:  A stream can represent smooth travel and navigation through the world without significant barriers.  The environment of streams and water represent places where Deaf people naturally fit and being able to hear is not an “advantage.”

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: De’Humankind by Ellen Mansfield and Stream of Consciousness by Susan Dupor[29].

Explanation: motif explained by Susan Dupor

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Third Eye

Meaning:  The third eye represents intuitive/subconscious knowledge that Deaf people have collectively. It also communicates being able to perceive/see/understand beyond current time/space.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Suppression by Betty G. Miller[30] and Eye & 2 leaves by Janna Dahl[31]. Also see 2nd Wave De’VIA Mural (2013) by various artists[32]

Explanation: motif explained by Tullos Horn

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*Tree

Meaning: Trees represent life as well as the history and roots of Deaf people and Deaf culture.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: See also De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 18

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Window

Meaning: Windows, because they can be seen through, represent a lack of barriers. They are visual symbols and are passage ways/openings to Deaf spaces and the World.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: Introspection I by Tony Folwer[33] and …And There Was Light by Patti Durr.

Explanation: motif explained by Susan Dupor

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*George W. Veditz

Meaning: Veditz represents a hero ancestor in Deaf culture. He was strong advocate for Deaf people’s rights and represents someone who has taken a stand for the preservation of ASL in the treat of oncoming waves of oralism.

Category: in general, works with this motif are categorized as affirmation works

Examples: see artworks by a variety of Deaf artists at https://veditzsite.wordpress.com/artworks/

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[1] See the https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/under “De’VIA Curriculum—De’VIA themes” to show how themes are categorized

[2] See Durr (1999/2000) for an explanation of the terms, resistance and affirmation in De’VIA. This work also appears in the Deaf Visual Art–ARTICLES section of the HeART of Deaf Culture: Literary and Cultural Expressions of Deafhood (2012).

[3] In De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 4 via https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/devia-motifs/28-day-chall-motifs-2015/

[4] see http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[5] mask of benevolence (concept from the book by Harlan Lane, The Mask of Benevolence:  Disabling the Deaf Community, 1992). The mask that is worn by those who feel they are  ‘helping the Deaf’ when what they are really doing is in their own self-interest thereby disabling Deaf people and disempowering Deaf people.

[6] http://www.warrenmillerart.com/past%20works.html

[7] http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[8] http://www.mar1eye.com/new_works.html and http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[9] http://www.nancyrourke.com/dandelions.htm

[10] https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/murals/

[11] http://www.eyehandstudio.com/index.php?route=product/category&path=61

[12] via http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[13] In De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 10 via https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/devia-motifs/28-day-chall-motifs-2015/

[14] via http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[15] In De’VIA [Feb. 2015] Challenge, Day 4 via https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/devia-motifs/28-day-chall-motifs-2015/

[16] http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[17] http://www.warrenmillerart.com/current%20works.html

[18] via http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[19] see the interview with Paddy Ladd in the HeART of Deaf Culture: Literary and Cultural Expressions of Deafhood via http://www.ntid.rit.edu/ntidweb/heart/

[20] http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[21] see both via http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[22] http://www.duporart.com/

[23] http://forcetenstudio.com/pages/FTS_tier-Introspection.html

[24] see http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[25] see http://jonsavagegallery.com/

[26] http://ellenmansfield.com/

[27] ASL Challenge De’VIA (Day Two) via https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/devia-motifs/28-day-chall-motifs-2015/

[28] http://www.redbubble.com/people/adreanaline/works/11572235-stop-talking-about-us-without-us?ref=work_main_nav

[29] http://www.duporart.com/

[30] see http://www.rit.edu/ntid/dccs/dada/dada.htm

[31] http://www.dahlspiritualart.com/meet-janna/

[32] https://deviacurr.wordpress.com/devia-curr/murals/

[33] http://forcetenstudio.com/pages/FTS_tier-Introspection.html

 

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Deaf View/Image Art for schools

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